Dating the turin shroud dating the turin shroud
"The radiocarbon sample has completely different chemical properties than the main part of the shroud relic," said Mr Rogers, who is a retired chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, US.
Fire damage He says he was originally dubious of untested claims that the 1988 sample was taken from a re-weave.
These tests revealed the presence of a chemical called vanillin in the radiocarbon sample and in the Holland cloth, but not the rest of the shroud.
"The radiocarbon sample cannot be older than about AD 1290, agreeing with the age determined in 1988.
It is said to have been restored by nuns who patched the holes and stitched the shroud to a reinforcing material known as the Holland cloth.
"[The radiocarbon sample] has obvious painting medium, a dye and a mordant that doesn't show anywhere else," Mr Rogers explained.
Raymond Rogers says his research and chemical tests show the material used in the 1988 radiocarbon analysis was cut from a medieval patch woven into the shroud to repair fire damage.
It was this material that was responsible for an invalid date being assigned to the original shroud cloth, he argues.